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Job Analysis


Before we go on to explain the concept of job analysis, let's first understand the meaning of the term 'job' itself


In simple words, a job can be understood as a division of the total work into packages / positions. According to Dale Yoder, "a job is a collection or aggregation of tasks, duties and responsibilities, which as a whole is considered a regular task for individual employees and which is different from other tasks". Thus, a job can be defined as a group of positions that involve some tasks, responsibilities, knowledge and skills.

Each job has a specific title based on standard trade specialization within a job. Each job differs from other jobs such as Peon, clerk, supervisor and accountant, manager, etc. A job can hold many positions. A position is a specific set of duties and responsibilities that are regularly assigned to a person.

Job Analysis:

Job analysis refers to the process of gathering information about a job. In other words, it refers to the anatomy of the job. Job analysis is only performed on a continuous job. It contains job content. For example, what are the duties of a supervisor, grade II, what minimal knowledge, skills and abilities are needed to perform this work appropriately? How do the requirements for a supervisor, grade II, match up with those for a supervisor, grade I? These are the questions that job analysis analyzes.

Let us consider some important definitions of job analysis.

"Job analysis is the process of getting information about jobs: specifically what the worker does; how he gets it done, why he does it; skills, education and training are required relative to other jobs, physical requirements environmental conditions".

"Job analysis is a process for studying and gathering information regarding the operations and responsibilities of a particular job. The immediate products in this analysis are job descriptions and job specifications".

"A job is a collection of tasks that can be performed by a single employee to contribute to the production of any product or service from the organization. Each job has certain ability requirements (as well as certain rewards) associated with it. Job analysis is the process used to identify these requirements". Job analysis can now be defined as an assessment that describes jobs and the behaviors needed to perform them.

There are two main aspects of job analysis:

1. Job description 2. Job specification

Why job analysis?

Job analysis is useful for overall management of all staff activities.

The same is stated as follows:

1. Human Resource Planning:

Estimates the amount and quality of people will be required in the future. How many and what type of people are required depends on the jobs to be staffed. Therefore, job-related information available through job analysis is necessary for human resource planning.

2. Recruitment and selection:

Recruitment succeeds job analysis. Basically, the goal of human resources planning is to match the right people with the right job. This is only possible after having sufficient information about the jobs to be staffed. It's job analysis that provides job information. Job analysis thus serves as the basis for recruitment and selection of employees in the organization.

3. Training and development:

Job analysis by providing information about what a job entails, ie. the knowledge and skills required to perform a job enable management to design the training and development programs to acquire these job requirements. Employee development programs such as job expansion, job enrichment, job rotation, etc.

4. Location and orientation:

As job analysis provides information on what skills and qualities are required to do a job, management can exchange orientation programs to help employees learn the necessary skills and qualities. It thus helps management to place an employee on the job that best suits him / her.

5. Job evaluation:

The job evaluation refers to determining relative values ​​of different jobs. Thus, it helps to develop appropriate salary and salary structures. Relative value is determined mainly on the basis of information from job analysis.

6. Performance assessment:

Performance appraisal involves comparing an employee's actual performance with the default value; what is expected of him / her. Such assessment or assessment serves as the basis for awarding campaigns, completing transfers or assessing educational needs. Job analysis helps establish job standards that are comparable to the individual employee's actual performance / contribution.

7. Staff information:

An increasing number of organizations maintain computer information about their employees. This is popularly known as the Human Resource Information System (HRIS). HRIS is useful as it helps improve administrative efficiency and provides decision support Human resource information working in the organization is provided by job analysis only.

8. Health and safety:

Job analysis helps identify and detect hazardous conditions and unhealthy environmental factors such as heat, noise, fumes, dust, etc.

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